In this paper, we propose an equal, critical role for developing interpersonal theories-in-use and the ability to diagnose systemic implications of organizational actions. Our analysis suggests that engaging both kinds of cognitive models at the same time cause-effect assumptions and interpersonal strategies has the potential to prove far more effective than either approach to intervention implemented alone. Although our focus is on improving intervention, this article also draws from the descriptive organizational learning literature to find support for its conclusions. Specifically, we note that descriptive research has found that organizations fail to adapt effectively to change, and show that the stabilizing interaction between interpretive processes and routines requires addressing individual mental models to escape this self-reinforcing dynamic. Finally, we propose that empirical research must be undertaken to assess the effects of these complementary processes in producing organizational change.