The present paper gives a brief overview of various theories of population growth which includes Malthusian theory, optimum theory of population and demographic transition. It discusses about the need to study population growth. The paper primarily focuses on the trends of population growth in united India and the Indian union, the causes of high death rates and its impact on population growth and the influence of migration on population growth from 1881-1941. It provides the substantial understanding of why the mortality was too high during that period and why it started declining after the break even year of 1921. It also suggests that the population growth during 1881-1941 was basically determined by the sharp fluctuation in the death rates. The birth rate was only the static factor in of the history population growth in the British India and it did not affect the population much.