The growing use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and the promotion of patient self-care are associated with a number of socio-economic factors such as patients’ lifestyle, their easy access to medicines, the favourable conditions for patient self-treatment, patients’ growing health awareness, as well as the wide availability of various medicinal products. We conducted a SWOT-analysis to identify the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that pharmacists face in their efforts to promote rational use of OTC products and safe and efficient self-medication. Adequate self-medication can be convenient and beneficial for patients and national health systems alike. On the other hand, treatment with OTC products often poses higher risks to patients and has a negative impact on the relationship between patients and their physicians and pharmacists. Pharmacists have to meet ever increasing expectations since they are the most accessible healthcare professionals responsible for maintaining patients’ well-being when self-medicating.