Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox) is one of the deadly poison categorized under the Mahavisha (by rasatarangini) and Sthavara visha (by sushrut and charak). It is a common drug indicated therapeutically for the management of various disease like Pleehodara (Spleenomegaly), Kushtha (Skin disease), Pandu (Anemia), Jwara (fever), Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis), Abhishyanda (Conjuctivitis) etc. As Acharya Charak mentioned that even poison in small amount acts like a nectar. So It is use in various medicinal formulations after proper purification. The use of impure vatsanabha may results in toxic effects like burning in whole body, unconsciousness, inhibition in heart rate, death etc. Modern toxicology also describes manifestation, treatment, autopsy findings and medico-legal points of Aconitum ferox. So this review helps us to understand the therapeutic and toxicological aspect of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox) as per Ayurveda and Modern toxicology.